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Collocations and phonology
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Augustus



Joined: 16 Oct 2012
Posts: 98

PostPosted: Tue Jan 15, 2013 9:34 pm    Post subject: Collocations and phonology Reply with quote

Hello,

Well as I reported awhile back I was offered a place on a CELTA course and am now in the process of tackling the post interview task and am come up against difficulties.

I have spent hours and hours on this task although I admit that I keep going off at a tangent to look at other stuff as trying to "up" my knowledge generally. Firstly, collocations - they just aren't explained anywhere that expansively .... I've been advised to purchase course books but all three seem to be Learning Teaching type book with no emphasis on grammar and Raymond Murphy wasn't helpful either. I've resorted to Google and its been more helpful and offered examples but no really explanation.

My question states that I must find the following examples:

verb-noun collocations, verb-preposition collocation, adjective-noun collocations, adverb-adjective collocations... and that sentences may contain more than one example.

Furthermore, I have just discovered phonology .... wow how on earth can anyone interpret these strange symbols to make words?

All the answers are available elsewhere anyway but I am battling to understand so any help would be much appreciated.
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artemisia



Joined: 04 Nov 2008
Posts: 867
Location: the world

PostPosted: Tue Jan 15, 2013 10:43 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hi Augustus

Good to see you're going ahead with your plans. I think one of the issues for you, if memory serves me correctly, is gaining an understanding of parts of speech or word class: verb, noun, adverb etc. It will be difficult to identify types of collocations in a sentence without having a fairly good grasp of that.

Collocations: words that go together to form (part of) an expression: make a cake or do the housework (verb + noun). You wouldn't say them the other way round: make the housework / do a cake. It sounds wrong to a native speaker although it's grammatically logical in terms of the verb/noun combination and probably still understandable.

I don't know where you've looked (posting site examples might be a good idea next time) but you could try these sites aimed at language learners. The second one is a pdf taken from "Collocations in Use" (from a good vocabulary series of language in use books). I haven't extensively checked the first website so I don't know if all the examples are great, but it's a starting point and seems to give a fairly good, basic overview. I suggest you spend a bit of time reading through. Hopefully you can start getting your head around how collocations work a little bit more.

http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/collocations.htm
http://www.freewebs.com/english1-0/type%20of%20collocatios.pdf

Others might have other useful site examples as well.
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fluffyhamster



Joined: 13 Mar 2005
Posts: 2730
Location: UK > China > Japan > UK again

PostPosted: Tue Jan 15, 2013 11:02 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

To familiarize yourself with the phonetic symbols used in the English phonemic* (basically, learner/pronunciation-indicating) alphabet, first take a look at this:
http://www.oup.com/elt/global/products/englishfile/elementary/c_pronunciation/

I'd also suggest taking a look at the at the pronunciation guides supplied in learner dictionaries (scroll to about halfway down the following page: http://www.ldoceonline.com/howtouse.html ), and testing yourself by thinking of random words (for example, the words I just typed: 'and', 'testing', etc), writing them in the IPA symbols, and then looking up those words to see if you were correct or even close (the online Oxford and Cambridge dictionaries are better than the Longman, in that they actually supply the IPA, and for both standard British and American English: http://oald8.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/ , http://dictionary.cambridge.org/ ).

You might also like to play around with this http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~danhall/phonetics/sammy.html (Note that this only shows the positions for making consonants, i.e. the ways the vocal organs prepare for and shape~close-off what would otherwise be the continuous vowel sounds/airstream passing through. I won't give links to 'vowel tongue position diagrams' and the like though, because they are a bit abstract and might be hard to grasp, and aren't really CELTA level. The Glossary here http://www.cambridge.org/gb/elt/catalogue/subject/project/custom/item2491705/English-Phonetics-and-Phonology-Resources/?site_locale=en_GB&currentSubjectID=382387 will help though, if you choose to go deeper into articulatory phonetics).

Then, on one of your older threads, I mentioned a link to a YouTube clip of Adrian Underhill (author of Sound Foundations) giving a seminar using his phonemic chart. If you have time (up to an hour), give that a go, as I'm sure you will learn a lot and his approach looks pretty good in essence. Here's the link again:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1kAPHyHd7Lo

Regarding collocations, the following appears to be an online version of the Oxford Collocations Dictionary:
http://www.ozdic.com/

Collocations aren't mere chance pairings of words (e.g. buy or eat...a hotdog? Far too open a choice of noun (or indeed verb)), but you won't want to be picking stuff that isn't very frequent (e.g. 'abandon hope', as opposed to 'save time', for an example of v + n). You should be able to do this on your own, TBH, as you surely know your parts of speech by now. I'll be willing to look over whatever examples you pick, though! Wink NB: the compilers of the OCD decided that nouns should be excluded from verb entries~starting points, as "people generally start from a noun when framing their ideas" (and think about that 'save time' collocation: starting from 'save' is far too "open", compared to from 'time'). See pg vi of the Introduction (a useful intro to collocations generally), namely the 'Looking up a collocation in the dictionary' part, of the Look Inside preview available on Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Oxford-Collocations-Dictionary-Colin-McIntosh/dp/0194325385/ . Finally, note that a lot of collocations will be given and marked in ordinary learner dictionaries (like the Longman etc above), but you'll probably prefer to use the OCD for now, as you can be surer with its selections.


*Phonology and phonemes are basically about specific-language subsets drawing on the wider phonetic symbol-inventory, e.g. English for everyday learner purposes uses only some 40-odd symbols out of the many more (some 150-ish?) available in the IPA (international Phonetic Alphabet). The IPA needs those many more symbols because it has to be able to phonetically describe (and sometimes in quite a lot of detail) the whole range of the world's languages. Basically, phonetics=linguistics, while phonology, phonemics and phonemes=ELT, TEFL. Note also the terms broad (i.e. not too detailed) versus narrow (i.e. very detailed) transcription. ELT uses a broad transcription that tolerates a fair amount of allophony ("multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) used to pronounce a single [and somewhat idealized~abstract - FH] phoneme" - from the Wikipedia entry for 'allophone').
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Denim-Maniac



Joined: 31 Jan 2012
Posts: 1238

PostPosted: Wed Jan 16, 2013 3:07 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hello Augustus

My first piece of advice ... DONT PANIC! These pre-course tasks are designed to introduce you to some of the tools and things encountered on the course. You arent supposed to know them inside out before starting the course, and all your fellow trainees will probably be in the same boat.

The course isnt going to teach you grammar and phonology, but it will show you a method of teaching in which both grammar and phonology are tools you may encounter and use.

Collocations in the simplest sense, are words that go together. Some of these word relationships are stronger than others. Common student mistakes might be saying things like 'make a photo', which may be OK in their own language, but the collocation in English uses the verb 'to take' with the noun 'photo'. The task you have is just asking you to find some similar relationships with words. Some of these relationships or collocations will be very very strong ... think of the word 'unrequited' for example ... its almost always going to be with 'love' right? So thats a strong collocation ... some other examples make things grammatically correct. We can be 'shocked by' or 'shocked at', but probably not 'shocked in'.

The IPA, those funny darn symbols, help students pronounce the words in English. If you think of words like heard / beard / word, you can see the spelling of the word doesnt always represent the sounds used. The IPA helps because it transcribes the actual sound of the word. You dont need to be 100% confident or capable of using this to pass your course. So again, dont panic.

When you are on the course and have to teach new words, the course trainees will probably like to see you use the IPA to show students the differences between troublesome words. Its just a very very small part of the EFL pie, and you may or may not need to use it all the time when you teach in the future. There are a few iPhone type apps that exist to show IPA if you want to get more familiar with them, but you really dont need to know them 100%. Dictionaries (including online ones) will help you if you need to find the correct transcription for your course.

One of the groups of students I teach are from Germany, and they dont tend to know the IPA so we dont use it in my classes with them.

Good luck with the course though!
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fluffyhamster



Joined: 13 Mar 2005
Posts: 2730
Location: UK > China > Japan > UK again

PostPosted: Wed Jan 16, 2013 5:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Good post, D-M! Esp. your point about how IPA is a consistent guide (hence its use) compared to the less consistent actual ordinary spellings of words. (IPA is basically an ancillary script for learners, or linguists etc). I'd really advise Augustus to try to learn those 40-odd phoneme symbols now though (at least the consonant symbols - the vowels may take a bit to fully sink in), because most of the students I've met have been reasonably familiar with them, and there probably won't be a better time to try memorizing them (one tends to get rather busy once the actual teaching job starts!). It's not so much the symbols themselves but how they (i.e. the sounds that they represent) are articulated by the speech organs that is important, and one may need to give sure guidance in such matters whenever one is teaching beginners, for example.

Pronunciation should be a big albeit somewhat ugly sister in TEFL, but it is kept as such a Cinderella that the students often have a better grasp of it than the teachers (which isn't a defensible state of affairs, IMHO). Another thing to consider is that with the increasing number of young learners nowadays, it'll be much easier for a teacher to get to grips with phonics-based approaches if they already know the underlying phonemes.

Same with grammar really - I wouldn't call it a mere tool, but an actual basis. (It doesn't need to be explicitly taught in quite the same way that the teacher learns it, however - that's part of the genesis and "genius" of individual teaching, to find a perhaps different way, that is more amenable to oneself and one's learners).


Last edited by fluffyhamster on Thu Jan 17, 2013 4:07 am; edited 4 times in total
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Augustus



Joined: 16 Oct 2012
Posts: 98

PostPosted: Wed Jan 16, 2013 7:12 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thank you for all your help!!!

I've spent the majority of the day going over these things and think I may be "getting it" now although I cant say I many hours further forward in completing the task ....


With regard to collocation what confuses me is that words can fall into different categories, so even when I look the particular word up it may be classed in three different ways as adjective, noun and then as a adverb. The examples I have are all for the task and I believe I can manage to justify my answers - although they may not necessarily be correct.

Examples taken from the task:

After he got up, he made his bed and did some housework.

I think this is a verb-noun collocation although I think the noun is the first part while the second part is the verb (doing action). Although I am not 100% convinced here as "he made his bed" constitutes a doing action too.

She was caught in a vicious circle.

I think this is a Verb-preposition collocations - verb to be caught while in seems to be the preposition.

They both really depend on each other.

Here, really is an adverb while depend on each other is a (intransitive) verb so I think this is adverb-adjective collocation.

Their farewell at the airport was highly emotional.

Here, I think farewell could be either a noun or a verb (imperative) while highly emotional could fall into either a noun or maybe adverb.

Not only washe nice, but he was also strikingly handsome.

I think the adverb is the first underlined while the second is an adjective.

It was absolutely fabulous.

Again, adverb - adjective.

Then phonology.... I loved the first site as it offered quizzes so I could listen to the sounds in context repeatedly and calibrate my ears to hear the differences. Its a pity it didn't cover the entire range but I now have a half completed table showing the different sounds in more than one context. Unfortunately, when I've tried to decipher the phonemic words in my task I just couldnt work them out. I was checking them on the
Oxford dictionary then for some reason it stopped offering the phoneme translation.

I admit to feeling quite scared now - this task is hard and I'm no where near finished. I got an email on Tuesday listing my group of 6 and who will be our tutor and I seem to have been put in the less favorable group. When I did my micro teach a second tutor was invited to do the interview with us, she was stony faced and looked thoroughly bored throughout and then made a negative statement at the end implying that what I just taught was a waste of time something along the lines of "Everyone uses computers now..... so why bother teaching people to do that...." And the name of my tutor could be a "proper" name for the same person. I really wanted the positive, bright and outgoing main tutor!!
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Denim-Maniac



Joined: 31 Jan 2012
Posts: 1238

PostPosted: Wed Jan 16, 2013 8:06 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Looks like you have a handle on things to me Augustus ... Ive only had a quick look through and skimmed it but it looks OK to me. Dont over-think it!
The course will be more practical than academic.

You are now aware of collocations and you probably weren't before. Well done already! You have learnt something TEFL'y to set you off on your journey.

Course tutors like to talk about 'chunks of language' when it comes to teaching vocabulary and I guess you can now understand why. Its great to teach words like 'addicted', but this pre-course task shows that you need to teach the preposition to go with it as well. 'Addicted to something' is the little chunk of language.

As Fluffy says above, now is a good time to get to grips with IPA, but in all honesty, lots of teachers have to check and double check their IPA usage for a long time after the course too! I recently did part of the Delta course and a lot of my fellow trainees at Delta level confessed they still weren't comfortable with IPA.

When you use IPA on the course, no-one is going to ask you to transcribe a word off the top of your head in front of your class. But they may say 'in your lesson tomorrow I want you to teach the words XXXXX, YYYYY, ZZZZZ'. All you need to do is transcribe them at home using a key or dictionary, check with with your tutor or peers, and then copy them onto a lesson plan that you'll be allowed to use in the classroom when you have teaching practice.
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fluffyhamster



Joined: 13 Mar 2005
Posts: 2730
Location: UK > China > Japan > UK again

PostPosted: Wed Jan 16, 2013 8:56 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

@Augustus: I just remembered this for practicing the fuller range of phonemes (not sure if this actual interactive chart is mentioned in or from that YT link I posted earlier): http://forums.eslcafe.com/teacher/viewtopic.php?t=9409

Edit: Here's another version of the chart, with more example words:
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/activities/phonemic-chart

I'll write a longer reply later (to D-M as well), a bit busy right now.


Last edited by fluffyhamster on Tue Jan 22, 2013 8:21 am; edited 1 time in total
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fluffyhamster



Joined: 13 Mar 2005
Posts: 2730
Location: UK > China > Japan > UK again

PostPosted: Thu Jan 17, 2013 12:57 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Augustus wrote:
what confuses me is that words can fall into different categories, so even when I look the particular word up it may be classed in three different ways as adjective, noun and then as a adverb.

As always, context is what determines what function a word has. A good dictionary that initially gives examples of each different use is the Macmillan (take a look at the 'Above can be used in the following ways' at the start of the following entry):
http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/above

The drawback however is that those uses may then be all rather lumped together into semantic rather than syntactically-based entries. (For example, what is the function or are the functions of 'above' in the 1b entry's examples? (Joking, don't let me distract you from your CELTA tasks! Just trying to imply that the other learner dictionaries I mentioned may be more suitable for you beyond the initial grammar usage that the Macmillan gives)). NB: to change between British and American pronunciations (indeed, dictionaries), I think you go to the Options in the MED's toolbar. A bit clunky compared to other dictionaries, but the two dictionaries do differ somewhat in their actual contents (selection and/or ordering or prominence of entries, main spellings obviously, etc).

Here is another good free online learner dictionary (US English), with plenty of examples:
http://www.learnersdictionary.com/

Quote:
After he got up, he made his bed and did some housework.

I think this is a verb-noun collocation although I think the noun is the first part while the second part is the verb (doing action). Although I am not 100% convinced here as "he made his bed" constitutes a doing action too.

Keep your eye on the ball. 'He' may be a noun (specifically, a pronoun), and 'He made his bed' describe an action, but all you are interested in are the relevant v + n collocations here (i.e. the V and O parts of the SVO order of the [conjoined, with 'and'] clauses), which are 'make' and 'his/a/the bed', and 'do' and '(some) housework' respectively. ('Bed' needs a determiner, as it is countable in this sense [cf. go to bed [*go to the bed]], while 'housework' wouldn't be ungrammatical without one).

Quote:
She was caught in a vicious circle.

I think this is a Verb-preposition collocations - verb to be caught while in seems to be the preposition.

I agree. Let's hope the trainers don't say "Nope, it's just another v + n" LOL. (Well, duh, the preposition here indeed needs the following noun as complement. I guess to be on the safe side you could say it's a v + p + n, but not of course if that isn't one of the possible answers you're allowed to give ROFL).

Quote:
They both really depend on each other.

Here, really is an adverb while depend on each other is a (intransitive) verb so I think this is adverb-adjective collocation.

The adverb here is incidental (it could be omitted without affecting the central proposition, and what about other adverbs like completely, entirely, very reluctantly, etc etc). I certainly wouldn't have underlined it as (part of) a "collocation". More sloppy task-writing? Confused 'Depend' is a verb, 'on' a preposition, and 'each other' the object (noun phrase) [object of the preposition; prepositional object. [That is, prepositions do rather break up what would otherwise be straightforward objects of verbs]]. I'd therefore call it a v + p (+ n) collocation: 'depend on sb or sthg'.

Quote:
Their farewell at the airport was highly emotional.

Here, I think farewell could be either a noun or a verb (imperative) while highly emotional could fall into either a noun or maybe adverb.

I'm a bit worried that you'd think the 'farewell' could be a verb LOL (it's a noun - note the determiner 'their' that precedes it). There is an "imperative" use (e.g. 'Farewell!' said Gandalf), but that's actually an interjection ( http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/farewell_2 ), which is a different word class/part of speech (i.e. different to nouns, and certainly to verbs!), plus you can't command somebody to 'Farewell!' like you can command them to 'Stop!' or 'Come in!' etc. (Bonus question: The word 'welcome' like 'farewell' can obviously be an interjection, but can it unlike 'farewell' have an imperative use? If you think so, give an example). ANYWAY the point of this exercise might be to show that collocations don't need to be contiguous - perhaps the student (or trainee teacher) is expected to deduce 'an emotional farewell' (contiguous adj + n (vs. contiguous n + adj=*farewell emotional)) from the given sentence despite the gaps between the underlined words? The adverb again seems incidental IMHO. "Bonus": Note the attributive (before the noun) placement of the adjective in the noun phrase 'an emotional farewell', compared to the predicative placement (after the noun, and indeed the copula 'be') of the exercise sentence. ( http://folk.uio.no/hhasselg/terms.html just in case LOL).

Quote:
Not only washe nice, but he was also strikingly handsome.

I think the adverb is the first underlined while the second is an adjective.

It was absolutely fabulous.

Again, adverb - adjective.

Yup.

Quote:
I admit to feeling quite scared now - this task is hard and I'm no where near finished. I got an email on Tuesday listing my group of 6 and who will be our tutor and I seem to have been put in the less favorable group. When I did my micro teach a second tutor was invited to do the interview with us, she was stony faced and looked thoroughly bored throughout and then made a negative statement at the end implying that what I just taught was a waste of time something along the lines of "Everyone uses computers now..... so why bother teaching people to do that...." And the name of my tutor could be a "proper" name for the same person. I really wanted the positive, bright and outgoing main tutor!!

I'm not too keen on divvying up CELTA trainees according to supposed capability, but needs must I suppose to keep each group small n cosy LOL. You think they'd not say if there really were such an obvious differential between the groups, but hey, you might notice the other group floating around in Oxbridge gowns or something, and shouting "Expecto A+ Passus!"as they wave an UCLES wand.


Denim-Maniac wrote:
As Fluffy says above, now is a good time to get to grips with IPA, but in all honesty, lots of teachers have to check and double check their IPA usage for a long time after the course too! I recently did part of the Delta course and a lot of my fellow trainees at Delta level confessed they still weren't comfortable with IPA.

TBH I am sometimes not sure quite which vowel to use (slightly non-standard accent a factor?), but that's a bit different from not knowing the vowels generally. <IDEA> Idea Maybe we could start testing each other on our IPA, and post our answers below (but no "cheating", in the sense of looking at online dictionaries or even at online IPA inventory click-on "typepads", until you've written the word or words out in full by hand first!). The first word that popped into my head: 'knickerbocker glory' LOL. (FWIW, I scored an almost perfect BrE transcription, according to the Cambridge transcription here: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/knickerbocker-glory?q=knickerbocker+glory . Very Happy The only thing I neglected was the second of the secondary stress marks Cool ). Idea </IDEA>

Quote:
When you use IPA on the course, no-one is going to ask you to transcribe a word off the top of your head in front of your class. But they may say 'in your lesson tomorrow I want you to teach the words XXXXX, YYYYY, ZZZZZ'. All you need to do is transcribe them at home using a key or dictionary, check with with your tutor or peers, and then copy them onto a lesson plan that you'll be allowed to use in the classroom when you have teaching practice.

I seem to recall me and my fellow trainees on my CTEFLA being given a pop-quiz (i.e. asked to transcribe a few words, before exchanging papers and checking the answers), and to write a short message or two to each other in IPA. At the very least, we were given a bit of stuff in IPA to read and rewrite into actual spelt words. All harmless fun LOL. And there's nothing stopping an actual student from one day asking you to transcribe almost any word.


Last edited by fluffyhamster on Thu Jan 17, 2013 6:20 am; edited 10 times in total
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fluffyhamster



Joined: 13 Mar 2005
Posts: 2730
Location: UK > China > Japan > UK again

PostPosted: Thu Jan 17, 2013 1:39 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Augustus wrote:
I was checking them on the Oxford dictionary then for some reason it stopped offering the phoneme translation.

Yes, it seems to have disappeared. They're probably trying to force people to buy the printed version (and why not! They need to keep making some money). I guess that leaves just the Cambridge (for BrE and AmE right alongside each other).

BTW, the pronunciation guide in the Oxford is in some ways (its verbal explanation) better than the one in the Longman:
http://oald8.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/pronunciation.html
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Xie Lin



Joined: 21 Oct 2011
Posts: 320

PostPosted: Thu Jan 17, 2013 2:26 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hi, Augustus, this may seem complicated now, but once you can see the patterns involved, you'll find them easier to recognize.

1. VERB, NOUN

Made his bed: Made = verb; Bed = noun
Did some housework: Did = verb; Housework = noun

2. VERB, PREPOSITION

Caught in (a vicious cycle): Caught = verb; In = preposition
Depend on (each other): Depend = verb; On = preposition

3. ADVERB, ADJECTIVE

Highly emotional: Highly = adverb; Emotional = adjective
Strikingly handsome: Strikingly = adverb; Handsome = adjective
Absolutely fabulous: Absolutely = adverb; Fabulous = adjective

Note: think of the two parts of the collocation as words that we typically use together. This is how the language has evolved. If you try to substitute others, they will usually sound wrong or at least awkward. For example, you would not usually say: highly fabulous, depend by, did his bed, make some housework, etc.

.


Last edited by Xie Lin on Thu Jan 17, 2013 2:58 am; edited 1 time in total
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fluffyhamster



Joined: 13 Mar 2005
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PostPosted: Thu Jan 17, 2013 2:56 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Coming back to this, I'd have to agree with Xie Lin about 'highly emotional' being the likely answer (with the underlining of 'farewell' in the task probably incidental, to simply show what the collocation was referring to). So forget my earlier blather about this question (after all, one could have a sad or touching or whatever farewell, to cast the critical spotlight on my adj + n "emerging noun phrase" of 'an emotional farewell'). Not that 'highly emotional' seems a particularly strong collocation, in the sense that another adverb would do just as well - 'very' or 'really', for example. (All one can really say about 'highly' is that it doesn't match as broad a range of adjectives e.g. ?highly touching and ?highly sad, rather than that it is an absolute collocate of 'emotional'). TBH I think some of the exercises are a bit weak or silly, and could do with dealing in just required complements or very strong collocations.

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Xie Lin



Joined: 21 Oct 2011
Posts: 320

PostPosted: Thu Jan 17, 2013 3:06 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I agree with the hamster that some of these collocations are not particularly strong--especially the adverb-adjectives. This makes the assignment less instructive than it might otherwise be, as well as more difficult for you. Crying or Very sad

.
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fluffyhamster



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PostPosted: Thu Jan 17, 2013 5:44 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Xie Lin wrote:
This makes the assignment less instructive than it might otherwise be, as well as more difficult for you. Crying or Very sad

Totally agree. Very well put!
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Denim-Maniac



Joined: 31 Jan 2012
Posts: 1238

PostPosted: Thu Jan 17, 2013 10:42 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Ill just pop back in to this one and add my own experience pre-course. Very Happy

I was pretty worried and focused on the 'language' part too much. And prior to the course I had a lot of work on and was slightly handicapped by repetitive strain injury ... I actually start my Trinity course with my writing hand in a support / sling thing.

Anyway .. because of this I didnt even complete all the pre-course tasks ... and no-one really minded. Its not pass / fail. Language awareness isnt even pass /fail.

The success on the course (IMHO) is about learning and applying a basic method of teaching practice. Thats the guide upon which you will be judged.

DISCLAIMER - This doesnt mean that one should ignore language and IPA etc ... but as Ive said before, dont stress about it too much. Success is about the method really.
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