Site Search:
 
TEFL International Supports Dave's ESL Cafe
TEFL Courses, TESOL Course, English Teaching Jobs - TEFL International
Korean Job Discussion Forums Forum Index Korean Job Discussion Forums
"The Internet's Meeting Place for ESL/EFL Teachers from Around the World!"
 
 FAQFAQ   SearchSearch   MemberlistMemberlist   UsergroupsUsergroups   RegisterRegister 
 ProfileProfile   Log in to check your private messagesLog in to check your private messages   Log inLog in 

Japan Apologizes to Korean ‘Comfort Women’
Goto page 1, 2  Next
 
Post new topic   Reply to topic    Korean Job Discussion Forums Forum Index -> Current Events Forum
View previous topic :: View next topic  
Author Message
catman



Joined: 18 Jul 2004

PostPosted: Mon Dec 28, 2015 8:33 pm    Post subject: Japan Apologizes to Korean ‘Comfort Women’ Reply with quote

Quote:
fter decades of back and forth over seemingly unresolvable issues between Japan and South Korea, the two governments have reached what is being called an “irreversible” solution to the issue concerning Japan’s colonial-era sexual enslavement of Korean women.

Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida and his South Korean counterpart, Yun Byung-se, made the announcement following their closed door meeting Monday.

Yun said that if Japan maintains its side of the agreement, Korea will consider the issue “finally and irreversibly” resolved.

Along with a handwritten apology from Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, the agreement provides that Japan will contribute 1 billion yen ($8.3 million) towards a foundation to support the surviving victims.



“Prime Minister Abe expresses anew his most sincere apologies and remorse to all the women who underwent immeasurable and painful experiences and suffered incurable physical and psychological wounds as comfort women,” Kishida said.

“The issue of comfort women, with an involvement of the Japanese military authorities at that time, was a grave affront to the honor and dignity of large numbers of women, and the government of Japan is painfully aware of responsibilities from this perspective.”
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
The Cosmic Hum



Joined: 09 May 2003
Location: Sonic Space

PostPosted: Mon Dec 28, 2015 8:46 pm    Post subject: Re: Japan Apologizes to Korean ‘Comfort Women’ Reply with quote

catman wrote:
Quote:
fter decades of back and forth over seemingly unresolvable issues between Japan and South Korea, the two governments have reached what is being called an “irreversible” solution to the issue concerning Japan’s colonial-era sexual enslavement of Korean women.

Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida and his South Korean counterpart, Yun Byung-se, made the announcement following their closed door meeting Monday.

Yun said that if Japan maintains its side of the agreement, Korea will consider the issue “finally and irreversibly” resolved.

Along with a handwritten apology from Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, the agreement provides that Japan will contribute 1 billion yen ($8.3 million) towards a foundation to support the surviving victims.



“Prime Minister Abe expresses anew his most sincere apologies and remorse to all the women who underwent immeasurable and painful experiences and suffered incurable physical and psychological wounds as comfort women,” Kishida said.

“The issue of comfort women, with an involvement of the Japanese military authorities at that time, was a grave affront to the honor and dignity of large numbers of women, and the government of Japan is painfully aware of responsibilities from this perspective.”

Impressive.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
sirius black



Joined: 04 Jun 2010

PostPosted: Tue Dec 29, 2015 9:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Japan should have taken a page out of the Germany play book. Make a full apology, early on, compensate and move on. Germany has benefited from that. Japan still remained hated in Asia as a result of not doing so.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
goat



Joined: 23 Feb 2010

PostPosted: Tue Dec 29, 2015 10:34 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

sirius black wrote:
Japan should have taken a page out of the Germany play book. Make a full apology, early on, compensate and move on. Germany has benefited from that. Japan still remained hated in Asia as a result of not doing so.


Japan apologized and paid out in 1965. Fully!
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Brooks



Joined: 08 Apr 2003

PostPosted: Tue Dec 29, 2015 10:43 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Maybe Korea wants an apology like Willy Brant did in Poland when he got down on his knees.
Anything else would be less than sincere.

But it does not help when Abe's wife just visited Yasukuni Shrine this week again for the third time this year.

The Japanese want that statue removed from in front of their embassy.
Also the statue is in California and maybe other US states, like in Virginia or Maryland.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Steelrails



Joined: 12 Mar 2009
Location: Earth, Solar System

PostPosted: Wed Dec 30, 2015 6:08 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

goat wrote:
sirius black wrote:
Japan should have taken a page out of the Germany play book. Make a full apology, early on, compensate and move on. Germany has benefited from that. Japan still remained hated in Asia as a result of not doing so.


Japan apologized and paid out in 1965. Fully!


And then goes back to the shrines and issues half-apologies again and again. Like a rapist who got caught, said he's sorry, and 6 months later is watching rape porn and not really apologizing for what he did.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Fox



Joined: 04 Mar 2009

PostPosted: Wed Dec 30, 2015 6:24 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Steelrails wrote:

And then goes back to the shrines and issues half-apologies again and again. Like a rapist who got caught, said he's sorry, and 6 months later is watching rape porn and not really apologizing for what he did.


When Southerners honor fallen Confederate soldiers, you seem inclined to sympathize with them. When the Japanese honor their fallen soldiers, why are you not likewise inclined? Why do you view one as evidently understandable and excusable, and the other as analogous to "watching rape porn?" I feel like I see an inconsistency here.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Titus2



Joined: 06 Sep 2015

PostPosted: Wed Dec 30, 2015 9:45 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Ancestor worship is their religion. They're going to do what they want.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Steelrails



Joined: 12 Mar 2009
Location: Earth, Solar System

PostPosted: Thu Dec 31, 2015 7:36 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Fox wrote:
Steelrails wrote:

And then goes back to the shrines and issues half-apologies again and again. Like a rapist who got caught, said he's sorry, and 6 months later is watching rape porn and not really apologizing for what he did.


When Southerners honor fallen Confederate soldiers, you seem inclined to sympathize with them. When the Japanese honor their fallen soldiers, why are you not likewise inclined? Why do you view one as evidently understandable and excusable, and the other as analogous to "watching rape porn?" I feel like I see an inconsistency here.


Well, for starters most Confederate generals and soldiers were not war criminals (with the notable exception of Bedford Forrest) and partisans like Bloody Bill Anderson, William Quantrill, and the James Brothers. I don't agree with any monuments to Bedford Forrest given the Ft. Pillow massacre, and the rest were all guerrillas. I really despise the Jesse James worship. The only acknowledgment that should be given to Forrest is his brilliant use of cavalry tactics. Most of these were in Kansas-Missouri or farther west and were related to the guerrilla conflicts that had already existed.

By and large the Civil War was comparatively low on atrocities compared to other wars, particularly in the early years. Destruction of property, rape, massacres of civilians, all were at a minimum. The most shocking thing was probably the 1862 sacking of Fredericksburg by Union soldiers and that was pretty mild as far as wartime sackings go. Some looting and smashing, but generally things weren't put to the torch. When Confederate troops occupied northern cities, it was standard practice to leave receipts for any property they seized (albeit for worthless Confederate money), and the only buildings that were torched were directly related to the war effort. Things did get more severe in 1864-65, but that was primarily on the Union side and still the deaths of civilians were kept to a minimum. Destruction of property was largely a military measure and did not include things like mass rape and mass execution.

The one war criminal that was tried and convicted for the Confederacy was the commandant at Andersonville, Henry Wirz. At one level, someone had to answer for the conditions there, however the conditions were also linked to a breakdown in the prisoner exchange system between North and South and the general collapse of the Confederate economy. All things considered, the results were somewhat inevitable. It should be noted that at the time, Lee's own army was facing constant hunger, bordering on starvation. In fact, at the time of his surrender, Lee asked Grant for rations to feed his soldiers, as his men had eaten virtually nothing for days and poorly over the winter.

All in all, the record of Confederate soldiers, regarding war crimes, is pretty good. While the Confederate government did maintain the practice of slavery and impress people into slavery, those were generally done within the confines of pre-existing law- a morally repugnant law that the Confederacy deserves blame for, but it was legal and recognized. It should be also noted that many of the actions regarding slaves and the Confederate armies were the result of orders from the civilian Confederate government, not the armed forces.

I have no problem with Germans or Japanese honoring and saluting professional military soldiers who did their duty during the war. Men like Rommel or Yamamoto fought hard, but clean. Same with Lee or Jackson. You can have mixed feelings about men like Yamashita or Kuchler or von Leeb.

I think the Confederate equivalent would be the Governor of Tennessee apologizing for slavery, and then going to Bedford Forrest's grave and throwing a big ceremony.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Fox



Joined: 04 Mar 2009

PostPosted: Thu Dec 31, 2015 9:25 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I see what you are saying. But are you really the sort of person who concerns himself with the cold, legal technicalities of international law rather than the ethical character of man's conduct? "The Confederacy was a vicious institution whose sina qua non was something we consider damnably cruel and unjust, but international law was less developed back then, and slavery was still "legal and recognized," so it's fine to pay it tribute?" Putting aside the fact that secession was unconstitutional, throwing into question the Confederacy's standing regarding "legal and recognized" behavior, consider two points:

1) The "war crimes" of which the Japanese are accused include "forced labor" and the use of "comfort women." Both of those categories of behavior obviously apply to the Confederate cause as well: forced labor was the very cause for which they fought, and the use of forced laborers as "comfort women" can be demonstrated well enough by the European component in modern African-American genetics. Likewise, while you, if not excuse, at least explain Henry Wirz' actions in terms of economic breakdown, there was likewise an element of economic breakdown at work behind certain Japanese crimes as well.

2) Beyond that, unlike Confederate monuments, the Yasukuni War Shrine isn't exclusively for the dead of World War 2: it's for those who died in service to the Emperor between 1867 and 1951 (I had to look up the dates), and has a religious (rather than "heritage") basis. Expecting the Japanese to modify their religious practices based upon the technicalities of international law seems like an extreme demand. You suggest that a Japanese Prime Minister visiting the shrine is comparable to, "The Governor of Tennessee apologizing for slavery, and then going to Bedford Forrest's grave and throwing a big ceremony," yet there are nearly 2.5 million people honored at the shrine, only a tiny fraction of whom are war criminals, and many of whom were convicted under the "Best Evidence Rule."

Quote:
The main problems arose from how the IMTFE used a method of information collection called "Best Evidence Rule" that allowed simple hearsay with no secondary support to be entered against the accused. The Indian Justice Radha Binod Pal found that due to the significant procedural flaws of the proceedings, that the court was an invalid form of victor's justice. As these problems with the tribunals left much to be argued about convicting the accused, and that the living convicted criminals were all released from prison by 1958 gave many Japanese people a reason to believe that they were not war criminals. Furthermore, Justice Pal's position was that he found all the defendants not guilty of Class A war crimes, even though he condemned the Japanese war-time conduct as "devilish and fiendish". While he fully acknowledged Japan's war atrocities – including the Nanjing massacre – he said they were covered in the Class B and Class C trials. No judge on the court disagreed as to the scale and horrifying nature of the atrocities of the war.


In other words, the Shrine is the exact opposite of a single criminal's grave: it's a monument to citizens who met certain criteria over the course of nearly a century, interned by religious authorities in accordance with particular criteria.

Beyond that, the government itself doesn't necessarily have authority over whose names are included in the shrine:

Quote:
According to Prime Minister Shinzo Abe the government had no say in who is enshrined.

...

In June 2005, a senior LDP member proposed moving the 14 Class A war criminals to a separate site. Shinto priests refused this proposal, quoting Japan's freedom of religion laws under the Japanese Constitution.


If anything, the behavior of the Japanese here seems more understandable to me than that of Americans honoring the Confederacy: the Japanese are honoring people who died service to the country, in accordance with their religious beliefs, while the Confederates are honoring rebels who rebelled specifically for the sake of preserving and expanding slavery. Strictly speaking, I'm not "defending" the Japanese here, but rather, am suggesting that if you can find it in yourself to understand and empathize with the descendants of Confederates here, it's confusing that you can't do the same with the Japanese.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Neil



Joined: 02 Jan 2004
Location: Tokyo

PostPosted: Fri Jan 01, 2016 3:00 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Korea and Japan will continue to have a low opinion of each other and in the eyes of hardliners on both sides they're already making noises about how this apology doesn't count for one reason or another.

The Japanese don't care, this frees them of their obligations in the eyes of the international community and Abe obviously considers 1 billion yen to be worth it for that alone, time will prove him right or wrong.

The fact it's been settled in such a squalid, backslapping, behind closed doors politicians way without the women being consulted shows what I suspected, that neither side cared about the women one jot all the long, it was just point scoring, the Japanese were just slightly more honest and realistic about viewing it as a matter of realpolitik rather than morality.

Park has questions to answer about why she took this deal in haste (it appears) after being so anti-Japanese since coming to office and it'll probably be an election issue in 2017, expect whoever the Saenuri candidate is to flip flop on this issue a lot.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Brooks



Joined: 08 Apr 2003

PostPosted: Sat Jan 02, 2016 11:37 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Well Fort Pillow was pretty bad.
Black troops could not surrender, just got shot.

Southerners would say the POW camp at Elmira, NY was awful.
It was called Hellmira.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
trueblue



Joined: 15 Jun 2014
Location: In between the lines

PostPosted: Sun Jan 03, 2016 3:48 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:

By and large the Civil War was comparatively low on atrocities compared to other wars, particularly in the early years. Destruction of property, rape, massacres of civilians, all were at a minimum. The most shocking thing was probably the 1862 sacking of Fredericksburg by Union soldiers and that was pretty mild as far as wartime sackings go. Some looting and smashing, but generally things weren't put to the torch. When Confederate troops occupied northern cities, it was standard practice to leave receipts for any property they seized (albeit for worthless Confederate money), and the only buildings that were torched were directly related to the war effort. Things did get more severe in 1864-65, but that was primarily on the Union side and still the deaths of civilians were kept to a minimum. Destruction of property was largely a military measure and did not include things like mass rape and mass execution.


...funny how Sherman and his march through Georgia and South Carolina, being an early example of "Total War", did not make that list.

But, you redeemed yourself, oddly, with this...

Quote:
I have no problem with Germans or Japanese honoring and saluting professional military soldiers who did their duty during the war. Men like Rommel or Yamamoto fought hard, but clean. Same with Lee or Jackson. You can have mixed feelings about men like Yamashita or Kuchler or von Leeb.


OK...probably one of your best posts.

Quote:
I think the Confederate equivalent would be the Governor of Tennessee apologizing for slavery, and then going to Bedford Forrest's grave and throwing a big ceremony.


OK, I admit..that is funny.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Steelrails



Joined: 12 Mar 2009
Location: Earth, Solar System

PostPosted: Wed Jan 06, 2016 1:56 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Fox wrote:
I see what you are saying. But are you really the sort of person who concerns himself with the cold, legal technicalities of international law rather than the ethical character of man's conduct? "The Confederacy was a vicious institution whose sina qua non was something we consider damnably cruel and unjust, but international law was less developed back then, and slavery was still "legal and recognized," so it's fine to pay it tribute?" Putting aside the fact that secession was unconstitutional, throwing into question the Confederacy's standing regarding "legal and recognized" behavior, consider two points:

1) The "war crimes" of which the Japanese are accused include "forced labor" and the use of "comfort women." Both of those categories of behavior obviously apply to the Confederate cause as well: forced labor was the very cause for which they fought, and the use of forced laborers as "comfort women" can be demonstrated well enough by the European component in modern African-American genetics. Likewise, while you, if not excuse, at least explain Henry Wirz' actions in terms of economic breakdown, there was likewise an element of economic breakdown at work behind certain Japanese crimes as well.


If their only war crime was forced labor then that might be different, however the Japanese war criminals are also responsible for things like The Rape of Nanking and Unit 731 and the Bataan Death March. The Confederate government treated its prisoners as well as it could during the early years before things completely collapsed and the exchange system broke down. Japan was awful, even during its times of early success. Part of this is explained in the Japanese view of surrender at the time, but that does not extend to its treatment of civilians.

Quote:
2) Beyond that, unlike Confederate monuments, the Yasukuni War Shrine isn't exclusively for the dead of World War 2: it's for those who died in service to the Emperor between 1867 and 1951 (I had to look up the dates), and has a religious (rather than "heritage") basis. Expecting the Japanese to modify their religious practices based upon the technicalities of international law seems like an extreme demand. You suggest that a Japanese Prime Minister visiting the shrine is comparable to, "The Governor of Tennessee apologizing for slavery, and then going to Bedford Forrest's grave and throwing a big ceremony," yet there are nearly 2.5 million people honored at the shrine, only a tiny fraction of whom are war criminals, and many of whom were convicted under the "Best Evidence Rule."


The war criminals at the shrine were added post-war

Quote:
No convicted war criminals were enshrined at Yasukuni until after the parole of the last remaining incarcerated war criminals in 1958. The Health and Welfare Ministry began forwarding information on Class B and Class C war criminals (those not involved in the planning, preparation, initiation, or waging of the war) to Yasukuni Shrine in 1959, and these individuals were gradually enshrined between 1959 and 1967, often without permission from surviving family members.[13][18] Information on the fourteen most prominent Class A war criminals, which included the prime ministers and top generals from the war era, was forwarded to the shrine in 1966, and the shrine passed a resolution to enshrine these individuals in 1970. The timing for their enshrinement was left to the discretion of head priest Fujimaro Tsukuba, who delayed the enshrinement through his death in March 1978. His successor Nagayoshi Matsudaira, who rejected the Tokyo war crimes tribunal's verdicts, enshrined the Class A war criminals in a secret ceremony in 1978


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yasukuni_Shrine

It should be noted that Emperor Hirohito refused to visit the shrine afterwards. When the man who was the divine agent of those men's war rejects them and a shrine that honors them (and should in theory still honor his divine status) then that says something. There was a specific move to include them and afford them the same status. I have no problem with a general monument to war dead and professional soldiers. I have no problem if a private citizen wishes to visit a site that honors war criminals. However, the political and diplomatic message that is sent by Heads of State and other senior government officials visiting such a site is certainly troubling at the least.

I think for Confederates there should certainly be a sorting of those who fought for States Rights/Military Duty/Conscripts and those who actively advocated a pro-slavery agenda and remained unrepentant after the war. If the generals had some inherently racist views (as most people did at the time) but were lukewarm about slavery (paternalistic vs. hateful), then they could probably still be included.

Quote:
In other words, the Shrine is the exact opposite of a single criminal's grave: it's a monument to citizens who met certain criteria over the course of nearly a century, interned by religious authorities in accordance with particular criteria.

Beyond that, the government itself doesn't necessarily have authority over whose names are included in the shrine:


The shrine should be free to exist as a private religious site. Government officials do have discretion over visiting it in an official or quasi-official capacity. They can also make public statements denouncing the war criminals while still honoring fallen soldiers.


Quote:
If anything, the behavior of the Japanese here seems more understandable to me than that of Americans honoring the Confederacy: the Japanese are honoring people who died service to the country, in accordance with their religious beliefs, while the Confederates are honoring rebels who rebelled specifically for the sake of preserving and expanding slavery. Strictly speaking, I'm not "defending" the Japanese here, but rather, am suggesting that if you can find it in yourself to understand and empathize with the descendants of Confederates here, it's confusing that you can't do the same with the Japanese.


Well, I do in some sense agree. For example, I understand Japan's motivations for going to war with China and the U.S. in context of the time. I also think there was an element of victor's justice. However, there is an element of "Sorry I got caught/Sorry I lost" vs. genuine sorrow over the actions. It's unambiguously clear that present-day German society and leadership is deeply sorrowful over the conduct of the Nazi regime.

To paraphrase Chris Rock, Japan's attitude is kind of like that of the uncle that molested you, but paid your way through college and they seem to have that kind of "Sorry you felt messed up over that, but I mean, look at you now!" and while he also leers at your kid.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Plain Meaning



Joined: 18 Oct 2014

PostPosted: Wed Jan 06, 2016 3:04 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

What happened to Japan was Total War.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_raids_on_Japan

Quote:
Allied forces conducted many air raids on Japan during World War II, causing extensive destruction to the country's cities and killing between 241,000 and 900,000 people.

. . .

Strategic bombing raids began in June 1944 and continued until the end of the war in August 1945. Allied naval and land-based tactical air units also attacked Japan during 1945.


Curtis LeMay was a savage butcher. His boy genius was future Secretary of Defense McNamara.

Quote:
The first firebombing attack in this campaign—codenamed Operation Meetinghouse[94]—was carried out against Tokyo on the night of 9/10 March, and proved to be the single most destructive air raid of the war.[95] XXI Bomber Command mounted a maximum effort, and on the afternoon of 9 March 346 B-29s left the Marianas bound for Tokyo. They began to arrive over the city at 2:00 am Guam time on 10 March, and 279 bombers dropped 1,665 tons of bombs.[96] The raid caused a massive conflagration that overwhelmed Tokyo's civil defenses and destroyed 16 square miles (41 km2) of buildings, representing seven percent of the city's urban area.[97] The Tokyo police force and fire department estimated that 83,793 people were killed during the air raid, another 40,918 were injured and just over a million lost their homes; postwar estimates of deaths in this attack have ranged from 80,000 to 100,000.[98][99] Damage to Tokyo's war production was also substantial.[98] Japanese opposition to this attack was relatively weak; 14 B-29s were destroyed as a result of combat or mechanical faults and a further 42 damaged by anti-aircraft fire.[100] Following the attack on Tokyo, the Japanese government ordered the evacuation of all schoolchildren in the third to sixth grades from the main cities, and 87 percent of them had departed to the countryside by early April.[50]

XXI Bomber Command followed up the firebombing of Tokyo with similar raids against other major cities. On 11 March, 310 B-29s were dispatched against Nagoya. The bombing was spread over a greater area than had been the case at Tokyo, and the attack caused less damage. Nevertheless, 2.05 square miles (5.3 km2) of buildings were burnt out and no B-29s were lost to the Japanese defenses. On the night of 13/14 March, 274 Superfortresses attacked Osaka and destroyed 8.1 square miles (21 km2) of the city for the loss of two aircraft. Kobe was the next target in the firebombing campaign, and was attacked by 331 B-29s on the night of 16/17 March. The resulting firestorm destroyed 7 square miles (18 km2) of the city (equivalent to half its area), killed 8,000 people and rendered 650,000 homeless. Three B-29s were lost. Nagoya was attacked again on the night of 18/19 March, and the B-29s destroyed 2.95 square miles (7.6 km2) of buildings. Only one Superfortress was shot down during this attack, and all members of its crew were rescued after the aircraft ditched into the sea. This raid marked the end of the first firebombing campaign as XXI Bomber Command had exhausted its supplies of incendiary bombs.[101][102] The Command's next major operation was an unsuccessful night precision attack on the Mitsubishi aircraft engine factory conducted on the night of 23/24 March; during this operation five of the 251 aircraft dispatched were shot down.[103] B-29s also began to drop propaganda leaflets over Japan during March. These leaflets called on Japanese civilians to overthrow their government or face destruction.[104]

The USAAF assessed that the firebombing campaign had been highly successful, and noted that American losses during these attacks were much lower than those incurred during day precision raids. Accordingly, the Joint Target Group (JTG), which was the Washington, D.C.-based organisation responsible for developing strategies for the air campaign against Japan, developed plans for a two-stage campaign against 22 Japanese cities. The JTG also recommended that precision bombing attacks on particularly important industrial facilities continue in parallel to the area raids, however. While this campaign was intended to form part of preparations for the Allied invasion of Japan, LeMay and some members of Arnold's staff believed that it alone would be sufficient to force the country's surrender.[105][106]

The Japanese government was concerned about the results of the March firebombing attacks as the raids had demonstrated that the Japanese military was unable to protect the nation's airspace. As well as the extensive physical damage in the targeted cities, the attacks also caused increased absenteeism as civilians were afraid to leave their homes to work in factories which might be bombed.[107] Japanese air defenses were reinforced in response to the firebombing raids, but remained inadequate; 450 fighters were assigned to defensive duties in April.[108]
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Display posts from previous:   
Post new topic   Reply to topic    Korean Job Discussion Forums Forum Index -> Current Events Forum All times are GMT - 8 Hours
Goto page 1, 2  Next
Page 1 of 2

 
Jump to:  
You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot vote in polls in this forum


This page is maintained by the one and only Dave Sperling.
Contact Dave's ESL Cafe
Copyright © 2016 Dave Sperling. All Rights Reserved.

Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2002 phpBB Group

TEFL International Supports Dave's ESL Cafe
TEFL Courses, TESOL Course, English Teaching Jobs - TEFL International